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  • 312: Vegetation formation composed principally of trees, including shrub and bush understorey, where coniferous species predominate. The predominant classifying parameter for this class is a crown cover density of > 30 % or a minimum 500 subjects/ha density, with coniferous trees representing > 75 % of the formation. The minimum tree height is 5 m (with the exception of Christmas tree plantations).

  • 231: Slope of pastures derived by OLS regression over the probabilities values (2000—2019). The std. error of the model was considered as uncertainty.

  • 335: Land covered by glaciers or permanent snowfields. Permanent snow and ice can be captured by finding the patches’ smallest extent during the year. This can be captured when they shrink to minimum due to summer warmth, but before the first snowfall after summer occurs. Such ideal date is between end July and late September. The general requirement of 100 m delineation accuracy is not sufficient in mapping 335. The tolerable shift in delineation is maximum 50 m.

  • ndvi: R2 of OLS regression calculated over a deseasonalized time series (Season-Trend decomposition using LOESS) for NDVI (four seasons between 2000 and 2019).

  • 512: Natural or artificial water bodies with presence of standing water surface during most of the year.

  • clc: Corine land cover rasterized to 100m spatial resolution and provided by Copernicus Land Monitoring Service.

  • 231: Permanent grassland characterized by agricultural use or strong human disturbance. Floral composition dominated by graminacea and influenced by human activity. Typically used for grazing-pastures, or mechanical harvesting of grass–meadows. Pastures can be described as extensively or intensively grazed permanent grasslands with presence of farm infrastructure such as: fences, shelters, enclosures, watering places, drinking trough, and/or regular agricultural measures and works: mowing, drainage, hay making, seeding, manuring, shrub clearance. Typical visible signs of use are regular parcel structure and/or animal paths.

  • osm: Harbours rasterized from OSM landuse polygons, first to 10m spatial resolution and after downsampled to 30m by spatial average.

  • osm: Buildings according to OSM polygons and the Copernicus impervious build-up layer (2018), aggregated and rasterized first to 10m spatial resolution and after downsampled to 30m by spatial average.

  • osm: Meadows rasterized from OSM landuse polygons, first to 10m spatial resolution and after downsampled to 30m by spatial average.