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  • Overview: The Essential Climate Variables for assessment of climate variability from 1979 to present dataset contains a selection of climatologies, monthly anomalies and monthly mean fields of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) suitable for monitoring and assessment of climate variability and change. Selection criteria are based on accuracy and temporal consistency on monthly to decadal time scales. The ECV data products in this set have been estimated from climate reanalyses ERA-Interim and ERA5, and, depending on the source, may have been adjusted to account for biases and other known deficiencies. Data sources and adjustment methods used are described in the Product User Guide, as are various particulars such as the baseline periods used to calculate monthly climatologies and the corresponding anomalies. Surface air relative humidity: The ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour to the equilibrium vapour pressure of water at the same temperature near the surface. Spatial resolution: 0:15:00 (0.25°) Temporal resolution: monthly Temporal extent: 1979 - present Data unit: percent * 10 Data type: UInt8 CRS as EPSG: EPSG:4326 Processing time delay: one month

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 91.9% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 98.1% / 95.9% (1410) low vegetation: 76.4% / 91.5% (844) water: 98.4% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 99.2% / 97.4% (983) bare soil: 35.1% / 95.1% (41) agriculture: 95.9% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 96.7% / 94.3% (1410) low vegetation: 70.6% / 84.0% (844) water: 98.5% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 98.2% / 89.8% (983) bare soil: 19.7% / 58.5% (41) agriculture: 91.7% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Total precipitation: Accumulated liquid and frozen water, including rain and snow, that falls to the Earth's surface. It is the sum of large-scale precipitation (that precipitation which is generated by large-scale weather patterns, such as troughs and cold fronts) and convective precipitation (generated by convection which occurs when air at lower levels in the atmosphere is warmer and less dense than the air above, so it rises). Precipitation variables do not include fog, dew or the precipitation that evaporates in the atmosphere before it lands at the surface of the Earth. This variable is accumulated from the beginning of the forecast time to the end of the forecast step. The units of precipitation are depth in metres. It is the depth the water would have if it were spread evenly over the grid box. Care should be taken when comparing model variables with observations, because observations are often local to a particular point in space and time, rather than representing averages over a model grid box and model time step. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc-sec (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate proportion of ERA5-Land / aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate proportion with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds 4. multiply the interpolated proportions with CHELSA Using proportions ensures that areas without precipitation remain areas without precipitation. Only if there was actual precipitation in a given area, precipitation was redistributed according to the spatial detail of CHELSA. Data available is the daily sum of precipitation. Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 (r.resamp.stats -w; r.relief) Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api/v2/terms/static/licence-to-use-copernicus-products.pdf CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122

  • The Copernicus DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) which represents the surface of the Earth including buildings, infrastructure and vegetation. The original GLO-30 provides worldwide coverage at 30 meters (refers to 10 arc seconds). Note that ocean areas do not have tiles, there one can assume height values equal to zero. Data is provided as Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs. Note that the vertical unit for measurement of elevation height is meters. The Copernicus DEM for Europe at 1000 meter resolution (EU-LAEA projection) in COG format has been derived from the Copernicus DEM GLO-30, mirrored on Open Data on AWS, dataset managed by Sinergise (https://registry.opendata.aws/copernicus-dem/). Processing steps: The original Copernicus GLO-30 DEM contains a relevant percentage of tiles with non-square pixels. We created a mosaic map in https://gdal.org/drivers/raster/vrt.html format and defined within the VRT file the rule to apply cubic resampling while reading the data, i.e. importing them into GRASS GIS for further processing. We chose cubic instead of bilinear resampling since the height-width ratio of non-square pixels is up to 1:5. Hence, artefacts between adjacent tiles in rugged terrain could be minimized: gdalbuildvrt -input_file_list list_geotiffs_MOOD.csv -r cubic -tr 0.000277777777777778 0.000277777777777778 Copernicus_DSM_30m_MOOD.vrt In order to reproject the data to EU-LAEA projection while reducing the spatial resolution to 1000 m, bilinear resampling was performed in GRASS GIS (using r.proj) and the pixel values were scaled with 1000 (storing the pixels as Integer values) for data volume reduction. In addition, a hillshade raster map was derived from the resampled elevation map (using r.relief, GRASS GIS). Eventually, we exported the elevation and hillshade raster maps in Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format, along with SLD and QML style files.

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Surface temperature: Temperature of the surface of the Earth. The skin temperature is the theoretical temperature that is required to satisfy the surface energy balance. It represents the temperature of the uppermost surface layer, which has no heat capacity and so can respond instantaneously to changes in surface fluxes. The spatially enhanced daily ERA5-Land data has been aggregated on a weekly basis (starting from Saturday) for the time period 2016 - 2020. Data available is the weekly average of daily averages, the weekly minimum of daily minima and the weekly maximum of daily maxima of surface temperature. File naming: Average of daily average: era5_land_ts_avg_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Max of daily max: era5_land_ts_max_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Min of daily min: era5_land_ts_min_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif The date in the file name determines the start day of the week (Saturday). Values are °C * 10. Example: Value 302 = 30.2 °C The QML or SLD style files can be used for visualization of the temperature layers.

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Surface temperature: Temperature of the surface of the Earth. The skin temperature is the theoretical temperature that is required to satisfy the surface energy balance. It represents the temperature of the uppermost surface layer, which has no heat capacity and so can respond instantaneously to changes in surface fluxes. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the spatial resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc-sec (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data (V1.2) (https://chelsa-climate.org/). For each day we used the corresponding monthly long-term average of CHELSA. The aim was to use the fine spatial detail of CHELSA and at the same time preserve the general regional pattern and fine temporal detail of ERA5-Land. The steps included aggregation and enhancement, specifically: 1. spatially aggregate CHELSA to the resolution of ERA5-Land 2. calculate difference of ERA5-Land - aggregated CHELSA 3. interpolate differences with a Gaussian filter to 30 arc seconds 4. add the interpolated differences to CHELSA Data available is the daily average, minimum and maximum of surface temperature. Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.0.0 (r.resamp.stats -w; r.relief) Original ERA5-Land dataset license: https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/api/v2/terms/static/licence-to-use-copernicus-products.pdf CHELSA climatologies (V1.2): Data used: Karger D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E, Linder, H.P., Kessler, M. (2018): Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Dryad digital repository. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.5061/dryad.kd1d4 Original peer-reviewed publication: Karger, D.N., Conrad, O., Böhner, J., Kawohl, T., Kreft, H., Soria-Auza, R.W., Zimmermann, N.E., Linder, P., Kessler, M. (2017): Climatologies at high resolution for the Earth land surface areas. Scientific Data. 4 170122. https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.122

  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from MODIS data for Europe at 1 km resolution. Source data: - MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MOD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod13a1v006/ - MODIS/Aqua Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 500 m SIN Grid (MYD13A1 v006): https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/myd13a1v006/ The MOD/MYD13A1 Version 6 product provide Vegetation Index (VI) values at a per pixel basis at 500 meter (m) spatial resolution. There are two primary vegetation layers. The first is the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which is referred to as the continuity index to the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) derived NDVI. The second vegetation layer is the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), which has improved sensitivity over high biomass regions. The algorithm for this product chooses the best available pixel value from all the acquisitions from the 16 day period. The criteria used is low clouds, low view angle, and the highest NDVI/EVI value. For the time periods October 2016 - March 2017 and August 2020 - April 2021, the original data has been reprojected to ETRS89-extended / LAEA Europe and aggregated to a 1 km grid. The temporal resolution is 16 days. Bad quality pixels or pixels with snow/ice and/or cloud cover have been masked using the provided quality assurance (QA) layers and appear as "no data". File naming: productCode.acquisitionDate[A (YYYYDDD)]_mosaic_spatialResolution_frequency_VI.tif example: MOD13A1.A2020305_mosaic_1000m_16_days_NDVI.tif The date is Year and Day of Year. Values are NDVI/EVI * 10000. Example: Value 6473 = 0.6473

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Air temperature (2 m): Temperature of air at 2m above the surface of land, sea or in-land waters. 2m temperature is calculated by interpolating between the lowest model level and the Earth's surface, taking account of the atmospheric conditions. The spatially enhanced daily ERA5-Land data has been aggregated on a weekly basis starting from Saturday for the time period 2016 - 2020. Data available is the weekly average of daily averages, the weekly minimum of daily minima and the weekly maximum of daily maxima of air temperature (2 m). File naming: Average of daily average: era5_land_t2m_avg_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Max of daily max: era5_land_t2m_max_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif Min of daily min: era5_land_t2m_min_weekly_YYYY_MM_DD.tif The date in the file name determines the start day of the week (Saturday). Values are °C * 10. Example: Value 44 = 4.4 °C The QML or SLD style files can be used for visualization of the temperature layers.

  • Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method [1] we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11C1 and MYD11C1 (spatial resolution: 3 arc-min, i.e. approximately 5.6 km at the equator). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. Here we provide a time series of these reconstructed LST data aggregated as monthly average, minimum and maximum LST maps. [1] Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333 The data available here for download are the reconstructed global MODIS LST products MOD11C1/MYD11C1 at a spatial resolution of 3 arc-min (approximately 5.6 km at the equator; see https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/dataset_discovery/modis/modis_products_table), aggregated to monthly data. The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11C1/MYD11C1 product as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: GEOGCS["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID["Clarke 1866",6378206.4,294.9786982138982, AUTHORITY["EPSG","7008"]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0], UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. File name abbreviations: avg = average of daily averages min = minimum of daily minima max = maximum of daily maxima Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in degree Celsius * 100 (hence, to obtain °C divide the pixel values by 100.0).