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  • Regional model ICON-D2 The DWD's ICON-D2 model is a forecast model which is operated for the very-short range up to +27 hours (+45 hours for the 03 UTC run). Due to its fine mesh size, the ICON-D2 especially provides for improved forecasts of hazardous weather conditions, e.g. weather situations with high-level moisture convection (super and multi-cell thunderstorms, squall lines, mesoscale convective complexes) and weather events that are influenced by fine-scale topographic effects (ground fog, Föhn winds, intense downslope winds, flash floods). The model area of ICON-D2 covers the whole German territory, Benelux, Switzerland, Austria and parts of the other neighbouring countries at a horizontal resolution of 2.2 km. In the vertical, the model defines 65 atmosphere levels. The fairly short forecast periods make perfect sense because of the purpose of ICON-D2 (and its small model area). Based on model runs at 00, 06, 09, 12, 15, 18 and 21 UTC, ICON-D2 provides new 27-hour forecasts every 3 hours. The model run at 03 UTC even covers a forecast period of 45 hours. The ICON-D2 forecast data for each weather element are made available in standard packages at our free DWD Open Data Server, both on a rotated grid and on a regular grid. Regional ensemble forecast model ICON-D2 EPS The ensemble forecasting system ICON-D2 EPS is based on the DWD's numerical weather forecast model ICON-D2 and currently includes 20 ensemble members. All ensemble members are calculated at the same horizontal grid spacing as the operational configuration of ICON-D2 (2.2 km). Like ICON-D2, the ICON-D2 EPS ensemble system provides forecasts up to +27 hours for the same model area (up to +45 hours based on the 03 UTC run). For generating the ensemble members, some of the features of the forecasting system are changed. The method currently used to generate the ensemble members involves varying the - lateral boundary conditions - initial state - soil moisture - and model physics. For varying the lateral boundary conditions and the initial state, forecasts from various global models are used. The ICON-D2 EPS is provided on the DWD Open Data Server in the native triangular grid. Note: All previously COSMO-D2 based aviation weather products have been migrated to ICON-D2 on 10.02.2021. However, the familiar design of these products remains unchanged.

  • Temperature time series with high spatial and temporal resolutions are important for several applications. The new MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) collection 6 provides numerous improvements compared to collection 5. However, being remotely sensed data in the thermal range, LST shows gaps in cloud-covered areas. With a novel method [1] we fully reconstructed the daily global MODIS LST products MOD11A1/MYD11A1 (spatial resolution: 1 km). For this, we combined temporal and spatial interpolation, using emissivity and elevation as covariates for the spatial interpolation. Here we provide a time series of these reconstructed LST data aggregated as daily LST maps at overpass time (approx: 01:30 am, 10:30am, 1:30pm 10:30pm). [1] Metz M., Andreo V., Neteler M. (2017): A new fully gap-free time series of Land Surface Temperature from MODIS LST data. Remote Sensing, 9(12):1333. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs9121333 The data are provided in GeoTIFF format. The Coordinate Reference System (CRS) is identical to the MOD11A1/MYD11A1 product (Sinusoidal) as provided by NASA. In WKT as reported by GDAL: PROJCRS["unnamed", BASEGEOGCRS["Unknown datum based upon the custom spheroid", DATUM["Not specified (based on custom spheroid)", ELLIPSOID["Custom spheroid",6371007.181,0, LENGTHUNIT["metre",1, ID["EPSG",9001]]]], PRIMEM["Greenwich",0, ANGLEUNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433, ID["EPSG",9122]]]], CONVERSION["unnamed", METHOD["Sinusoidal"], PARAMETER["Longitude of natural origin",0, ANGLEUNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433], ID["EPSG",8802]], PARAMETER["False easting",0, LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1], ID["EPSG",8806]], PARAMETER["False northing",0, LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1], ID["EPSG",8807]]], CS[Cartesian,2], AXIS["easting",east, ORDER[1], LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1]], AXIS["northing",north, ORDER[2], LENGTHUNIT["Meter",1]]] Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) for making the MODIS LST data available. The dataset is based on MODIS Collection V006. Meaning of pixel values: The pixel values are coded in Kelvin * 50 Data type: raster, UInt16 Spatial resolution: 926.62543314 m Spatial extent Sinusoidal (W, S, E, N): 0, 4447802.079066, 2223901.039533, 6671703.118599 Spatial extent in EPSG:4326 (W, S, E, N): 0, 40, 40, 60

  • The Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 is a product resulting from the Phase 2 of the S2GLC project. The final map has been produced on the CREODIAS platform with algorithms and software developed by CBK PAN. Classification of over 15 000 Sentinel-2 images required high level of automation that was assured by the developed software. The legend of the resulting Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 consists of 13 land cover classes. The pixel size of the map equals 10 m, which corresponds to the highest spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 imagery. Its overall accuracy was estimated to be at the level of 86% using approximately 52 000 validation samples distributed across Europe. Related publication: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 96.7% / 94.3% (1410) low vegetation: 70.6% / 84.0% (844) water: 98.5% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 98.2% / 89.8% (983) bare soil: 19.7% / 58.5% (41) agriculture: 91.7% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • Base epoch 2015 from the Collection 3 of annual, global 100m land cover maps. Other available (consolidated) epochs: 2016 2017 2018 2019 Produced by the global component of the Copernicus Land Service, derived from PROBA-V satellite observations and ancillary datasets. The maps include: - a main discrete classification with 23 classes aligned with UN-FAO's Land Cover Classification System, - a set of versatile cover fractions: percentage (%) of ground cover for the 10 main classes - - a forest type layer quality layers on input data density Online map viewer: https://lcviewer.vito.be

  • This landcover map was produced with a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 95.0% / 93.8% (1410) low vegetation: 73.4% / 86.5% (844) water: 98.5% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 98.9% / 95.8% (983) bare soil: 23.9% / 82.9% (41) agriculture: 94.6% / 83.2% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This change map was produced on the basis of a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2019 and 2020. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/9246503f-6adf-460b-a31e-73a649182d07 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019/2020), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This global accessibility map enumerates land-based travel time to the nearest densely-populated area for all areas between 85 degrees north and 60 degrees south for a nominal year 2015. Densely-populated areas are defined as contiguous areas with 1,500 or more inhabitants per square kilometer or a majority of built-up land cover types coincident with a population centre of at least 50,000 inhabitants. This map was produced through a collaboration between the University of Oxford Malaria Atlas Project (MAP), Google, the European Union Joint Research Centre (JRC), and the University of Twente, Netherlands. The underlying datasets used to produce the map, include roads (comprising the first ever global-scale use of Open Street Map and Google roads datasets), railways, rivers, lakes, oceans, topographic conditions (slope and elevation), landcover types, and national borders. These datasets were each allocated a speed or speeds of travel in terms of time to cross each pixel of that type. The datasets were then combined to produce a “friction surface”, a map where every pixel is allocated a nominal overall speed of travel based on the types occurring within that pixel. Least-cost-path algorithms (running in Google Earth Engine and, for high-latitude areas, in R) were used in conjunction with this friction surface to calculate the time of travel from all locations to the nearest city (by travel time). Cities were determined using the high-density-cover product created by the Global Human Settlement Project. Each pixel in the resultant accessibility map thus represents the modeled shortest time from that location to a city. Full Citation D.J. Weiss, A. Nelson, H.S. Gibson, W. Temperley, S. Peedell, A. Lieber, M. Hancher, E. Poyart, S. Belchior, N. Fullman, B. Mappin, U. Dalrymple, J. Rozier, T.C.D. Lucas, R.E. Howes, L.S. Tusting, S.Y. Kang, E. Cameron, D. Bisanzio, K.E. Battle, S. Bhatt, and P.W. Gething. A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015. (2018). Nature. doi:10.1038/nature25181.

  • The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is responsible for the archive and distribution of NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 (NASADEM_SC) dataset, which provides global slope and curvature elevation data at 1 arc second spacing. NASADEM data products were derived from original telemetry data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a collaboration between NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), as well as participation from the German and Italian space agencies. SRTM’s primary focus was to generate a near-global DEM of the Earth using radar interferometry. It was a primary component of the payload on space shuttle Endeavour during its STS-99 mission, which was launched on February 11, 2000, and flew for 11 days. In addition to Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Version 3 data, NASADEM also relied on Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) ground control points of its lidar shots to improve surface elevation measurements that led to improved geolocation accuracy. Other reprocessing improvements include the conversion to geoid reference and the use of GDEMs and Advanced Land Observing Satellite Panchromatic Remote-sensing instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) AW3D30 DEM, and interpolation for void filling. NASADEM are distributed in 1° by 1° tiles and consist of all land between 60° N and 56° S latitude. This accounts for about 80% of Earth’s total landmass. NASADEM_SC data product layers include slope, aspect angle, profile curvature, plan curvature, and an updated SRTM water body dataset (water mask). A low-resolution browse image showing slope is also available for each NASADEM_SC granule.

  • Orthophotos are high-resolution, distortion-free, true-to-scale images of the earth's surface. They are produced by photogrammetric methods with the use of orientation parameters and of a digital terrain model from aerial photographs that are available as vertical images. Digital orthophotos are georeferenced. They are available for the entire area of NRW and are renewed in a 3-year cycle. They are produced according to the product standard of the Federal State, which is based on the specifications of an AdV standard (AdV (german): Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen der Länder) and have a ground resolution of 10cm/pixel. They are 4-band multispectral images with a band assignment of RGBI (Red-Green-Blue-Near Infrared).