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  • This landcover map was produced with a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. Even though the project is concluded, the annual land cover classification product is continuously generated. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 83.5% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 90.6% / 91.9% (1410) low vegetation: 69.2% / 82.8% (844) water: 97.0% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 96.5% / 97.4% (983) bare soil: 8.5% / 68.3% (41) agriculture: 96.6% / 68.4% (1653) Compared to the previous years, the overall accuracy and accuracies of some classes is reduced. 2021 was a rather cloudy year in Germany, which means that the detection of agricultural areas is hampered as it is based on the variance of the NDVI throughout the year. With fewer cloud-free images available, the NDVI variance is not fully covered and as no adaptations have been applied to the algorithm, agricultural fields may get classified as low vegetation or bare soil more often. Another reason for lower classification accuracy is the significant damage that occured to forest areas due to storm and bark beetle. The validation dataset was generated based on aerial imagery from the years 2018/2019 which and is slowly becoming obsolete. An up-to-date validation dataset will be applied. Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • Overview: Daily maps for global daylight length, calculated for the year 2022. Processing steps: For each day within the year 2022, the photoperiod (sunshine hours on flat terrain) are calculated using the SOLPOS algorithm developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA. Resultant values have been converted from hours to minutes. File naming scheme (DDD = day within year) (min is abbreviation for minute): daylight_min_2022_DDD.tif Projection + EPSG code: Latitude-Longitude/WGS84 (EPSG: 4326) Spatial extent: north: 90 south: -90 west: -180 east: 180 Spatial resolution: 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) Temporal resolution: Daily Pixel values: unit: minutes Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.2.0 Processed by: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (https://www.mundialis.de/) Reference: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): SOLPOS 2.0 sun position algorithm (https://www.nrel.gov/grid/solar-resource/solpos.html)

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Surface temperature: Temperature of the surface of the Earth. The skin temperature is the theoretical temperature that is required to satisfy the surface energy balance. It represents the temperature of the uppermost surface layer, which has no heat capacity and so can respond instantaneously to changes in surface fluxes. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc-sec (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data. Data available is the daily average, minimum and maximum of surface temperature.

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Air temperature (2 m): Temperature of air at 2m above the surface of land, sea or in-land waters. 2m temperature is calculated by interpolating between the lowest model level and the Earth's surface, taking account of the atmospheric conditions. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc-sec (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data. Data available is the daily average, minimum and maximum of air temperature (2 m).

  • Overview: ERA5-Land is a reanalysis dataset providing a consistent view of the evolution of land variables over several decades at an enhanced resolution compared to ERA5. ERA5-Land has been produced by replaying the land component of the ECMWF ERA5 climate reanalysis. Reanalysis combines model data with observations from across the world into a globally complete and consistent dataset using the laws of physics. Reanalysis produces data that goes several decades back in time, providing an accurate description of the climate of the past. Total precipitation: Accumulated liquid and frozen water, including rain and snow, that falls to the Earth's surface. It is the sum of large-scale precipitation (that precipitation which is generated by large-scale weather patterns, such as troughs and cold fronts) and convective precipitation (generated by convection which occurs when air at lower levels in the atmosphere is warmer and less dense than the air above, so it rises). Precipitation variables do not include fog, dew or the precipitation that evaporates in the atmosphere before it lands at the surface of the Earth. This variable is accumulated from the beginning of the forecast time to the end of the forecast step. The units of precipitation are depth in metres. It is the depth the water would have if it were spread evenly over the grid box. Care should be taken when comparing model variables with observations, because observations are often local to a particular point in space and time, rather than representing averages over a model grid box and model time step. The original ERA5-Land dataset (period: 2000 - 2020) has been reprocessed to: - aggregate ERA5-Land hourly data to daily data (minimum, mean, maximum) - while increasing the resolution from the native ERA5-Land resolution of 0.1 degree (~ 9 km) to 30 arc-sec (~ 1 km) by image fusion with CHELSA data. Data available is the daily sum of precipitation.