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  • The free available dataset by the European Space Agency (ESA) contains the global landcover, which is divided into eleven classes: - Tree cover - Shrubland - Grassland - Cropland - Built-up - Bare/sparse vegetation - Snow and ice - Permanent water bodies - Herbaceous wetland - Mangroves - Moss and lichen. The landcover was originally derived from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data. There are 2651 tiles (3x3 degrees) at a spatial resolution of 10m, which can be downloaded as GeoTIFFs in the the EPSG:4326 projection (WGS84). For each tile there are two layers. One contains the land cover map and the other a three band GeoTIFF providing three per pixel quality indicators of the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 input data.

  • This landcover map was produced with a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. Even though the project is concluded, the annual land cover classification product is continuously generated. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 83.5% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 90.6% / 91.9% (1410) low vegetation: 69.2% / 82.8% (844) water: 97.0% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 96.5% / 97.4% (983) bare soil: 8.5% / 68.3% (41) agriculture: 96.6% / 68.4% (1653) Compared to the previous years, the overall accuracy and accuracies of some classes is reduced. 2021 was a rather cloudy year in Germany, which means that the detection of agricultural areas is hampered as it is based on the variance of the NDVI throughout the year. With fewer cloud-free images available, the NDVI variance is not fully covered and as no adaptations have been applied to the algorithm, agricultural fields may get classified as low vegetation or bare soil more often. Another reason for lower classification accuracy is the significant damage that occured to forest areas due to storm and bark beetle. The validation dataset was generated based on aerial imagery from the years 2018/2019 which and is slowly becoming obsolete. An up-to-date validation dataset will be applied. Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 91.9% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 98.1% / 95.9% (1410) low vegetation: 76.4% / 91.5% (844) water: 98.4% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 99.2% / 97.4% (983) bare soil: 35.1% / 95.1% (41) agriculture: 95.9% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • Overview: Daily maps for global daylight length, calculated for the year 2022. Processing steps: For each day within the year 2022, the photoperiod (sunshine hours on flat terrain) are calculated using the SOLPOS algorithm developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), USA. Resultant values have been converted from hours to minutes. File naming scheme (DDD = day within year) (min is abbreviation for minute): daylight_min_2022_DDD.tif Projection + EPSG code: Latitude-Longitude/WGS84 (EPSG: 4326) Spatial extent: north: 90 south: -90 west: -180 east: 180 Spatial resolution: 30 arc seconds (approx. 1000 m) Temporal resolution: Daily Pixel values: unit: minutes Software used: GDAL 3.2.2 and GRASS GIS 8.2.0 Processed by: mundialis GmbH & Co. KG, Germany (https://www.mundialis.de/) Reference: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): SOLPOS 2.0 sun position algorithm (https://www.nrel.gov/grid/solar-resource/solpos.html)

  • OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Data are collected using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, and other free sources. This crowdsourced data are then made available under the Open Database License.

  • Here we provide a mosaic of the Copernicus DEM 30m for Europe and the corresponding hillshade derived from the GLO-30 public instance of the Copernicus DEM. The CRS is the same as the original Copernicus DEM CRS: EPSG:4326. Note that GLO-30 Public provides limited coverage at 30 meters because a small subset of tiles covering specific countries are not yet released to the public by the Copernicus Programme. Note that ocean areas do not have tiles, there one can assume height values equal to zero. Data is provided as Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs. The Copernicus DEM is a Digital Surface Model (DSM) which represents the surface of the Earth including buildings, infrastructure and vegetation. The original GLO-30 provides worldwide coverage at 30 meters (refers to 10 arc seconds). Note that ocean areas do not have tiles, there one can assume height values equal to zero. Data is provided as Cloud Optimized GeoTIFFs. Note that the vertical unit for measurement of elevation height is meters. The Copernicus DEM for Europe at 30 m in COG format has been derived from the Copernicus DEM GLO-30, mirrored on Open Data on AWS, dataset managed by Sinergise (https://registry.opendata.aws/copernicus-dem/). Processing steps: The original Copernicus GLO-30 DEM contains a relevant percentage of tiles with non-square pixels. We created a mosaic map in https://gdal.org/drivers/raster/vrt.html format and defined within the VRT file the rule to apply cubic resampling while reading the data, i.e. importing them into GRASS GIS for further processing. We chose cubic instead of bilinear resampling since the height-width ratio of non-square pixels is up to 1:5. Hence, artefacts between adjacent tiles in rugged terrain could be minimized: gdalbuildvrt -input_file_list list_geotiffs_MOOD.csv -r cubic -tr 0.000277777777777778 0.000277777777777778 Copernicus_DSM_30m_MOOD.vrt The pixel values were scaled with 1000 (storing the pixels as integer values) for data volume reduction. In addition, a hillshade raster map was derived from the resampled elevation map (using r.relief, GRASS GIS). Eventually, we exported the elevation and hillshade raster maps in Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) format, along with SLD and QML style files.

  • This change map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2016 and 2019. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/db130a09-fc2e-421d-95e2-1575e7c4b45c https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016/2019), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced as an intermediate result in the course of the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2016), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 96.7% / 94.3% (1410) low vegetation: 70.6% / 84.0% (844) water: 98.5% / 94.2% (69) built-up: 98.2% / 89.8% (983) bare soil: 19.7% / 58.5% (41) agriculture: 91.7% / 85.3% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This change map was produced on the basis of a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. The map indicates land cover changes between the years 2019 and 2020. It is a difference map from two classifications based on Sentinel-2 MAJA data (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). More information on the two basis classifications can be found here: https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/36512b46-f3aa-4aa4-8281-7584ec46c813 https://data.mundialis.de/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/9246503f-6adf-460b-a31e-73a649182d07 To keep only significant changes in the change detection map, the following postprocessing steps are applied to the initial difference raster: - Modefilter (3x3) to eliminate isolated pixels and edge effects - Information gain in a 4x4 window compares class distribution within the window from the two timesteps. High values indicate that the class distribution in the window has changed, and thus a change is likely. Gain ranges from 0 to 1, all changes < 0.5 are omitted. - Change areas < 1ha are removed The resulting map has the following nomenclature: 0: No Change 1: Change from low vegetation to forest 2: Change from water to forest 3: Change from built-up to forest 4: Change from bare soil to forest 5: Change from agriculture to forest 6: Change from forest to low vegetation 7: Change from water to low vegetation 8: Change from built-up to low vegetation 9: Change from bare soil to low vegetation 10: Change from agriculture to low vegetation 11: Change from forest to water 12: Change from low vegetation to water 13: Change from built-up to water 14: Change from bare soil to water 15: Change from agriculture to water 16: Change from forest to built-up 17: Change from low vegetation to built-up 18: Change from water to built-up 19: Change from bare soil to built-up 20: Change from agriculture to built-up 21: Change from forest to bare soil 22: Change from low vegetation to bare soil 23: Change from water to bare soil 24: Change from built-up to bare soil 25: Change from agriculture to bare soil 26: Change from forest to agriculture 27: Change from low vegetation to agriculture 28: Change from water to agriculture 29: Change from built-up to agriculture 30: Change from bare soil to agriculture - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2019/2020), processed by mundialis Incora report with details on methods and results: pending

  • This landcover map was produced with a classification method developed in the project incora (Inwertsetzung von Copernicus-Daten für die Raumbeobachtung, mFUND Förderkennzeichen: 19F2079C) in cooperation with ILS (Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung gGmbH) and BBSR (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung) funded by BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure). The goal of incora is an analysis of settlement and infrastructure dynamics in Germany based on Copernicus Sentinel data. This classification is based on a time-series of monthly averaged, atmospherically corrected Sentinel-2 tiles (MAJA L3A-WASP: https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/maps/sentinel2:l3a:wasp; DLR (2019): Sentinel-2 MSI - Level 2A (MAJA-Tiles)- Germany). It consists of the following landcover classes: 10: forest 20: low vegetation 30: water 40: built-up 50: bare soil 60: agriculture Potential training and validation areas were automatically extracted using spectral indices and their temporal variability from the Sentinel-2 data itself as well as the following auxiliary datasets: - OpenStreetMap (Map data copyrighted OpenStreetMap contributors and available from htttps://www.openstreetmap.org) - Copernicus HRL Imperviousness Status Map 2018 (© European Union, Copernicus Land Monitoring Service 2018, European Environment Agency (EEA)) - S2GLC Land Cover Map of Europe 2017 (Malinowski et al. 2020: Automated Production of Land Cover/Use Map of Europe Based on Sentinel-2 Imagery. Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3523; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12213523) - Germany NUTS administrative areas 1:250000 (© GeoBasis-DE / BKG 2020 / dl-de/by-2-0 / https://gdz.bkg.bund.de/index.php/default/nuts-gebiete-1-250-000-stand-31-12-nuts250-31-12.html) - Contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2020), processed by mundialis Processing was performed for blocks of federal states and individual maps were mosaicked afterwards. For each class 100,000 pixels from the potential training areas were extracted as training data. An exemplary validation of the classification results was perfomed for the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia as its open data policy allows for direct access to official data to be used as reference. Rules to convert relevant ATKIS Basis-DLM object classes to the incora nomenclature were defined. Subsequently, 5.000 reference points were randomly sampled and their classification in each case visually examined and, if necessary, revised to obtain a robust reference data set. The comparison of this reference data set with the incora classification yielded the following results: overall accurary: 88.4% class: user's accuracy / producer's accurary (number of reference points n) forest: 95.0% / 93.8% (1410) low vegetation: 73.4% / 86.5% (844) water: 98.5% / 92.8% (69) built-up: 98.9% / 95.8% (983) bare soil: 23.9% / 82.9% (41) agriculture: 94.6% / 83.2% (1653) Incora report with details on methods and results: pending