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  • Roads rasterized from OSM landuse polygons, first to 10m spatial resolution and after downsampled to 30m by spatial average.

  • NDVI time-series, derived from the Landsat quarterly temporal composites.

  • Number of pixels used in aggregating monthly PM2.5 maps.

  • Permanent grassland characterized by agricultural use or strong human disturbance. Floral composition dominated by graminacea and influenced by human activity. Typically used for grazing-pastures, or mechanical harvesting of grass–meadows. Pastures can be described as extensively or intensively grazed permanent grasslands with presence of farm infrastructure such as: fences, shelters, enclosures, watering places, drinking trough, and/or regular agricultural measures and works: mowing, drainage, hay making, seeding, manuring, shrub clearance. Typical visible signs of use are regular parcel structure and/or animal paths.

  • Corine land cover rasterized to 100m spatial resolution and provided by Copernicus Land Monitoring Service.

  • Areas planted with vines, vineyard parcels covering >50% and determining the land use of the area.

  • Landsat RGB time-series, derived by the median pixel values obtained between June 25 and September 12 on a specific year.

  • Natural non-vegetated expanses of sand or pebble/gravel, in coastal or continental locations, like beaches, dunes, gravel pads; including beds of stream channels with torrential regime. Vegetation covers maximum 10%.

  • Areas with sparse vegetation, covering 10-50% of surface. Includes steppes, tundra, lichen heath, badlands, karstic areas and scattered high-altitude vegetation. Scattered vegetation is composed of herbaceous and/or ligneous and semi-ligneous species, the rest of area is naturally bare ground.

  • Monthly PM2.5 maps aggregated from the daily PM2.5 predictions.